Rush-hour motorists trying to cross the Tay Road Bridge are facing long queues as a result of roadworks which have left the bridge down to one lane.
Standstills were reported on several roads, including Princes Street in Dundee, as drivers tried to make it through the city to the bridge.
A contraflow system is scheduled to be in place until September 19, with severe delays on its first day of operation.
There was congestion around Dundee city centre, particularly in East Marketgait and Arbroath Road, as queues backed up.
On the Fife side, traffic was congested at rush hour on the northbound carriageway between Forgan Roundabout and the bridge.
Stagecoach said its services between Dundee and Fife were also experiencing delays as a result of the roadworks on the bridge.
“Due to roadworks on the Tay Bridge and heavy congestion associated with the roadworks our services into Dundee and back to Fife are experiencing some delays,” an update said.
The operator’s 42A and 99 services at Dundee rail station are all said to be running around 15 to 20 minutes late.
A spokesperson for the bridge thanked drivers for their patience, and said extra delays on Monday afternoon we caused by emergency vehicles.
“We have had some extra delays this afternoon due to emergency vehicles requiring to cross using the closed carriageway,” they said.
“We apologise to all users for the inconvenience caused during these essential works.”
One driver said it had been “utter chaos”, whilst others reported being stationary for up to 10 minutes as they tried to cross from the Dundee side.
Bosses at the bridge have warned there will be disruption throughout the work, with drivers asked to plan ahead.
A 30mph speed limit is in place alongside a ban on anyone crossing with loads wider than 2.6m.