Dundee is the worst-hit city in Scotland for having the most empty shops in its centre with 22% of retail spaces unused.
The figures released by Stirling University with the Local Data Company show 12.6% of retail properties are vacant in towns and cities across Scotland.
Brechin tops the chart for the highest number of empty shops, with a quarter vacant — up from 22.3% last year.
Cowdenbeath had the biggest increase in vacancies with a rise of 7.6%.
Some towns actually had a small drop in empty retail spaces but the number of vacant shops in cities continues to climb.
While the average vacancy rate in Scottish towns fell 0.6% this year, in cities it has risen by 0.3%.
Inverness was the only one to avoid a rise, with a drop of 2.9%.
Earlier this year it was revealed 4,630 retail workers in Scotland have lost their jobs since 2014.
Experts blame consumer spending patterns and changes to the large business tax supplement.